That there are certain natural rights, of which men, when they form a social compact, cannot deprive or divest their posterity, among which are the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursing and obtaining happiness and safety.
That all power is naturally vested in, and consequently derived from the people; that Magistrates, therefore, are their Trustees and Agents, and at all times amenable to them.
That Government ought to be instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people; and that the doctrine of non-resistence against arbitrary power and oppression, is absurd, slavish, and destructive of the good and happiness of mankind.
That no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or separate public emoluments or privileges from the community, but in consideration of public services, which not being descendible, neither ought the offices of Magistrate, Legislator, or Judge,3
or any other public Officer to be hereditary.
That the Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary Powers of Government should be separate and distinct, and that the members of the two first may be restrained from oppression by feeling and participating4
burthens, they should, at fixed periods, be reduced to a private station, return into the mass of the people, and the vacancies be supplied by certain and regular elections; in which all or any part of the former members to be eligible or ineligible, as the rules of the Constitution of Government, and the laws, shall direct.
That every freeman restrained of his liberty, is entitled to a remedy, to enquiire into the lawfulness thereof and to remove the same, if unlawful, and that such remedy ought not to be denied nor delayed.
That every freeman ought to find a certain remedy by recourse to the laws, for all injuries and wrongs he may receive in his person, property, or character. He ought to obtain right and justice freely without sale, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay, and that all establishments or regulations contravening these rights, are oppressive and unjust.
That the members of the Senate and House of Representatives shall be ineligible to, and incapable of holding any civil office under the authority of the
States, during the time for which they shall respectively be elected.
That the journals of the proceedings of the Senate and House of Representatives shall be published, at least, once in every year, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy.
That a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published, at least, once in every year.
That no commercial Treaty shall be ratified without the concurrence of two thirds of the whole number of the members of the Senate; and no Treaty, ceding, contracting, restraining or suspending the territorial rights or claims of the
States, or any of them or their, or any of their rights or claims to fishing in the American Seas, or navigating the American Rivers, shall be but in cases of the most urgent and extreme necessity; nor shall any such treaty be ratified without the concurrence of three fourths of the whole number of the members of both Houses respectively.
That no navigation law, or law regulating commerce, shall be passed without the consent of two thirds of the members present in both Houses.
That no standing army or regular troops shall be raised or kept up in time of peace, without the consent of two thirds of the members present in both Houses.
That no soldier shall be enlisted for any longer term than four years, except in time of war, and then for no longer term than the continuance of the war.
That each State respectively shall have the power to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining its own militia, whensoever Congress shall omit or neglect to provide for the same. That the militia shall not be subject to martial law, except when in actual service in time of war, invasion or rebellion; and when not in the actual service of the
States, shall be subject only to such fines, penalties, and punishments as shall be directed or inflicted by the laws of its own State.
That the exclusive power of Legislation given to Congress over the Federal Town, and its adjacent district, and other places purchased or to be purchased by Congress of any of the States, shall extend only to such regulations as respect the police and good Government thereof.
That no person shall be capable of being President of the
States, for more than eight years in any term of sixteen years.
cial Power of the
States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such Courts of Admiralty as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish in any of the different States;23
The Judicial Powers shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under treaties made, or which shall be made under the authority of the United States; to all cases affecting Ambassadors, other foreign Ministers and24
to all cases of Admiralty and Maritime Jurisdiction;26
to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States; and between parties claiming lands under the grants of different States. In all cases affecting Ambassadors, other foreign Ministers and Consuls, and27
those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction;28
in all other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction as to matters of law only, except in cases of equity, and of Admiralty and Maritime Jurisdiction, in which the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.29
But The Judicial Power of the United States shall extend to no case where the cause of action shall have originated before the ratification of this Constitution; except in disputes between States about their Territory, disputes between persons claiming lands under the grants of different States, and suits for debts due to the United States.
That Congress shall not alter, modify, or interfere in the times, places, or manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, or either of them, except when the Legislature of any State shall neglect, refuse, or be disabled by invasion or rebellion, to prescribe the same.
That some tribunal, other than the Senate, be provided for trying impeachments of Senators.
That the salary of a Judge shall not be increased or diminished during his continuance in office, otherwise than by general regulations of salary, which may take place on a revision of the subject at stated periods of not less than seven years, to commence from the time such salaries shall be first ascertained by Congress.